Sunday, 29 December 2013

FMP: Castle fortifications Research

A castle is defined as a fortified residence, meaning it is very distinct and separate from related establishments such as a palace, which is un-fortified; or a fortress, which is purely for battle and not residence. Its purpose is to be a symbol of power in the surrounding land and its acts as a central hub for which offensives could be orchestrated and prepared for defense against outside assault. 

 In terms of the foundations and layout of castles, there are two cases which have proven most interesting. the Mott and Bailey and the concept of concentric castle design.

This castle design involved more than one curtain wall, so there was not just one castle wall, there was an inner wall as well, a means of dividing the castle into regions. I like to think that the further into the castle yo go the higher ground it has for additional tactical advantage. Minas Tirith is a good example of this in terms of its different levels.

The motte was a portion of the castle build upon artificially raised ground (a turf) for tactical advantage, it was generally used if the other part of the settlement was under attack or overrun. It was man made and had to be built up from ground level and the type of soil had an impact on its strength.

The bailey was the central courtyard that was encl
osed behind the curtain wall. 

The are major elements which are a part of the construction of the castle; not all of them are military based but they are shown to contribute to the settlements overall strength.

Watchtowers: Usually placed away from the castle as a means of communication and lookout for potential threats.

Turrets: They come in different shapes as they can have different effects.
- Rectangular: the most common and allowed efficient use of internal space, however the corners for vulnerable to collapse from mining on the outside.
- Round: Its shape allows it to be more resistance to incoming projectiles as they have a higher chance of missing the target.
- Horseshoe: A combination of the two above; the semicircle exterior and the straight rear.

In certain cases there are octagonal ones as well, such as at Raglan. 
Smaller variants (bartizans)can also overhang onto the outer wall, usually on the corners.

Moats: Castles would be either be built upon or near water sources or the moat can be dug or excavated around the castle after its built. The effectiveness of this is that it prevents the use of siege weapons and battering rams as they have to be brought right up to the castle wall to have any effect.

Gates: The major weak point within a castle, therefore it must be heavily defended and fortified. Two options in this case include a portcullis which serves as a secondary door and halts the enemy advance.  The other is the use of a drawbridge which when not in use can serve as the best barrier against attacks.

There doesn't always have to be just one major entrance gate, if I am to take the idea on concentric castle design on board, then there will be need for more gates to divide the castle. Gatehouses are also utilized and a separate fortified entrance guarding the entrance to the castle itself, however the terrain and layout of the level will affect if this will be included.

In addition, the fortifications types can have a significant impact on development, and whilst not all of them are mandatory, they contribute to the design and effectiveness of its defenses.
The Wall: The walls(battlements) of the castle in general will account for a large percentage of the level, it will be far and reoccurring so it is a high priority to break it up with as much as possible. This can include the following:

- Alcoves
- Staircases

- Windows
Arched, Lancet and casement with latticework are the most frequently occurring in my first hand research.

- BastionsStructures that project out of the wall and divide the battlements.

- Doors
Doorways into the turrets and towers will sometimes to be blocked by doors as an additional barrier in the event of invaders making it onto the ramparts.

- Arrowslits
Vertical openings in the battlements to allow archers to repel invaders whilst being protected. Certain slits were X shaped as a horizontal slit was also necessary for crossbowmen. 

To begin with castles were built mostly from wood and timber since it was cheap and easy to construct, however didn't last long since it was flammable. Stone was more effective and strong despite its costs and weight. 

All of these findings and research have been found in articles concerning the Middle Ages (medieval period), although there has been the odd castle offensive/defensive from the ancient times which can have a place among everything else, most notably booty traps.

No comments:

Post a Comment